Create New Account. PTI's Faisal Javed Khan defends Ertugrul's Engin Altan after Fahad Mustafa's remarks, How the Sikh diaspora is drumming up global support for farmers' protest in India. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. After promulgation of Urdu as a national language of then united Pakistan, East Pakistanis strongly protested demanding Bengali as an official language for East Pakistan. Current Literacy Rate in Pakistan 2020 (Updated) As of January 2020, Pakistan vows to raise literacy rate from 58% to 70% in four years by providing school access to approximately 22.8 million students, improving the education system for all age groups through the application of modern technological resources.. Primary: 22,650,000; Post-Secondary: 1,949,000 Just as Pakistan’s ‘language ideology’ (SLS: 17) ignored the ‘shallowness of Urdu’s roots’ (SLS: 31-2) in the provinces that constituted Pakistan in 1947, the stress on Islam led to a state endorsement of a Sunni, literate and reformist Islam disconnected from the religious practices of the majority of the population. It is not only language which matters as far as national integration is concerned but tolerance and acceptance of each other regardless of variation in culture, class and religion also matters. But, that policy failed because it was based on top-bottom approach and imposed on people in a superficial manner. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a culturally and linguistically diverse large South Asian country bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the north and west, China to the northeast, India to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. However, a vast section of the population speaks it as their second language. Back to back imposition of martial law and military takeover diminished hopes to transform Pakistan as a viable nation state. That accord was the result of a demand which was made through Lahore Resolution of March 23, 1940, and then reiterated in Muslim League’s convention in Delhi held in April 1946. Urdu is Pakistan’s national language, but only 10% of the people speak it, according to Ethnologue. In case of Pakistan, after the assassination of the country’s first Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, the West Pakistan dominated military-bureaucratic elite along with feudal class and clergy began to propagate the notion of strong centre and used religion to artificially integrate the diverse provinces of the country. There are more than 70 languages spoken in Pakistan, yet Urdu, the national language and the medium of instruction in the majority of state schools, is spoken by just 7% of the population. Even after the induction of the new government in 2018, the migration of people abroad has not stopped and the brain drain continues. However, there is no national language in India. Since when did Urdu become the mother tongue of Pakistan's population it is a national language only spoken by people then 10 percent of the population Pakistan has more then one mother tongue. Lack of ownership with the resources and public institutions means there is absence of commitment for the country. While there are more than 70 languages spoken in Pakistan, including the provincial languages Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi, the country’s official languages are Urdu and English. On the question of romanising Sindhi, I agree with Mr. Nizamani's view that Sindhi should continue to be written in Arabic script. Current Literacy Rate in Pakistan 2020 (Updated) As of January 2020, Pakistan vows to raise literacy rate from 58% to 70% in four years by providing school access to approximately 22.8 million students, improving the education system for all age groups through the application of modern technological resources.. Primary: 22,650,000; Post-Secondary: 1,949,000 (PDF) LANGUAGE PLANNING AND LANGUAGE POLICY DILEMMA IN PAKISTAN | Ahdi hassan - Academia.edu In this project, we have focused Langue planning and language policy (LPLP) generally, in particular, in Pakistani context and discussed the dilemma of language policy in Pakistan. Introduction: Factors affecting language in Pakistan. Ethnic nationalism began to be in conflict with religion particularly in the then East Pakistan where language movement emerged as a cogent force challenging those who wanted that the country should be governed according to the ideology of Islam rather than language, ethnicity or place of origin. Ali Abbas reviews the long-standing issues with education in Pakistan. Crossref Wali Aslam , Post 9/11 Higher Education Reforms and the Instruction of International Relations in Pakistan , International Studies Perspectives , 10.1093/isp/ekx013 , 19 , 3 , (267-287) , (2018) . Not Now. Pakistan’s quest for national integration would remain elusive unless the bottom-top approach is adopted where a sense of belonging to the country evolves at the grassroots’ level. Isn't it an irony that in India Sindhi is recognised as one of the national languages but in Pakistan, for whose creation the Sindh Assembly passed the resolution, it is relegated to the status of 'regional language' or 'other language'? Only Mr. Hashim and a few others objected when the word ‘states’ of the previous resolution was replaced with ‘State’ but they were overruled and the emendation was adopted. A national consensus on a democratic form of government is a must for Pakistan’s long-term stability, security and economic progress. “We are now all Pakistanis — not Balochis, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis and so on — and as Pakistanis we must feel, behave and act, and we should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else’. This decision was resented in East Pakistan and … Pakistan is one of three remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In addition to this, the country has five major indigenous languages given below. A winning strategy will have to include structural and governance reform, both to stop jihadis exploiting the absence of rule of law and to address the root causes of extremist violence. Education related statistics coupled with Pakistan’s progress regarding education targets set in Vision 2030 and Pakistan’s lagging behind in achieving EFA targets and its Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) for education call for an analysis of the education system of Pakistan and to look into the issues and problems it is facing so that workable solutions could be recommended. Some small steps could reduce the distance between legislatures and the people. If the answer is Pakistani nation, then another important question comes to the mind what happened to the idea of 'Muslim nation'? About See All. Formed on an ideological ground with the religion of Islam as its prime source of identity, Pakistan began to face numerous issues of language and ethnicity in its formative phase. Issues. Protest slowed and stopped after 23 February 1952. Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. Govt-opposition deadlock on important national issues persists Published On 26 November,2020 07:53 pm ISLAMABAD (Dunya News) - The Deadlock between government and opposition on important national issues persists as the opposition has categorically stated that it will not attend the meetings of the parliamentary committee chaired by Speaker Asad Qaiser. But, once such threats receded, Pakistan’s internal contradictions in the form of political polarisation and ethnic/lingual discords reappeared. question about the State language of Pakistan was raised immediately after the independence in 1947. However, only about 8% of Pakistanis speak Urdu as their first language. Pakistan needs a policy to aid citizens imprisoned abroad. Be it 1965 war or the recent terrorist attack at Pulwama, surge of nationalistic feelings among the people of Pakistan helped to unitedly deal with issues threatening survival of a country. Particularly Bengalis and Sindhis have been very conscious, sensitive and proud about their languages. The post-1971 Pakistan failed to learn lessons from the trauma of separation as language riots in Sindh broke out when Sindhi was declared as a language of the province by the Sindh Assembly in July 1972. Unfortunately, renegade elements belonging to some unelected institutions of the state continue to hatch conspiracies to destabilise and change elected governments, thus, falling prey to the machinations of Pakistan’s enemies. The language issue has been one of the most contentious issues in the political, legal and constitutional history of Pakistan since its inception. The simple and factual position is that Pakistan is not a nation but a multi - national country consisting of Sindhi, Baloch, Pakhtoon, Punjabi and Seraiki nations. Contact National Issues - Pakistan on Messenger. The failure of national integration in creating Pakistani man and woman has much to do with dysfunctional educational system of the country which is unable to provide equal opportunities to children to seek basic quality education. Community See All. niopk.com. (1999). As a result, conflict over national language emerged in the formative phase of Pakistan when Urdu was rather imposed on the then East Pakistan. In a book entitled Sheikh Mujibur Rahman The Unfinished Memoirs (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2012) the reaction of Bengali participants in Muslim League’s convention held in Delhi about dropping the word ‘states’ as mentioned in Lahore Resolution with ‘state’ is stated as: “The resolution that was taken there altered the Lahore Resolution in some ways. Ours is a country very rich and diverse linguistically: A recent research says there are 73 languages and dialectsspoken in Pakistan (`How many languages are spoken in Pakistan?` Dawn, March 13, 2017). One of the major issues the country is facing is a shortage of water. There is no denying the fact that it was the language issue in East Bengal that ultimately led to the breakup of Pakistan. Efforts in the Standardization of Urdu code table, Akhbar-e-Urdu (Urdu News). What are the six major positives with regards to Pakistan's economy? Hence the languages of these constituent units/nations (using the termnology of 1940 resolution) should be recognised as the national languages while Urdu may be considered as the lingua franca. Pakistan has the potential and resources (natural, human, physical) to become one of the leading global economies, but unfortunately, our cycle of growth hasn’t been consistent lately. Currently the sixth most populous country in the … Most of its export earnings come from the textile industry. In this nation, English is also one of the vastly spoking languages as well. A country deeply divided on ethno-linguistic lines, Pakistan is in dire need to reconsider its policies towards language if it hopes to survive and thrive as a unified national entity. The tendency to find faults with the country and not doing anything to remove things which cause social, economic, political and governance crises means the lack of ownership. The way in which the govt has put across its intentions gives the impression as if it is giving provinces money as charity. Language is the source of knowledge and communication. Article 343(1) of the Indian constitution specifically mentions that, "The official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. There are also provincial languages, Balochi language, Pashto, Saraiki, Sindhi and Punjabi, and one state language (Kashmiri language). Punjab. Retrieved on 3 June 2008. or. Also in 2011, Pakistan began implementing a national action plan In response to the WHO declaring a … The India-Pakistan war in 1965 pushed the language issue to the background for only a short while, but the second war with Pakistan in 1971 compounded this effect. Moreover, Urdu has been declared the national language of Pakistan and the provincial language in the Punjab, NWFP and Balochistan,” is how leftist … Some small steps could reduce the distance between legislatures and the people. It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. Truth on April 24, 2016: Just to clarify, the language you state as our mother tongue is not our mother tongue. Table 1. Actually, the English language is not the official language of Pakistan. Pakistan needs a policy to aid citizens imprisoned abroad. But, religion alone cannot be a binding force to integrate dissimilar people of a country as a nation. This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. Sixty-six languages are local and eight are foreign, it said. Ltd. (www.compunode.com).Designed for Dawn. As far as Sindhi is concerned, many Sindhis feel offended when their language is called a' regional language'. India, the neighbour of Pakistan has hundreds of languages, several cultures and religions but has been able to prevent disintegration because of its democratic political system as neither the military nor any ethnic group is allowed to dominate a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. A national language of any nation is the main identification of the national culture. The number of confirmed WPV cases increased to 198 in 2011. Biases on ethnic, cultural, lingual, religious or sectarian grounds can never lead to political or economic stability. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu.Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.. Pakistan's national language is Urdu.It is also proposed to be the co-official languages along with English. The truth, though, is not that simple! Two years later, on 21 February 1956, the National Assembly of Pakistan declared both Urdu and Bengali the official state languages of Pakistan. Pakistan’s dilemma of national integration needs to be examined from three different angles. Furthermore, the propensity to seek and explore migration as an option so as to achieve a better life abroad means lack of responsibility and commitment to put things in order. In case of Pakistan, Urdu was declared as a national language despite the fact that it was not the mother tongue of the majority and was considered only as a lingua franca. Pakistan’s official language is still English as it was when the British ruled the country as part of British India. PTI's Faisal Javed Khan defends Ertugrul's Engin Altan after Fahad Mustafa's remarks, How the Sikh diaspora is drumming up global support for farmers' protest in India. National integration cannot be artificially created but it evolves as a result of a process of social and economic justice along with democratic political pluralism. The Pakistani government officially amended the legislation. Quaid’s warning that the people of Pakistan should be alert and cognizant from those forces who wanted to plant the seeds of ethnic nationalism and secession made sense. The problems are as well discussed which were caused by language First, Pakistan came into being as a result of an accord reached between the Muslim majority regions of North West and North East of the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, for national integration, whether in case of the United States or India, language was not a major issue as English and Hindi, which were the languages of dominant groups in the two countries were adopted. See more of National Issues - Pakistan on Facebook. Victory finally came on 7 May 1954, when the Constituent Assembly voted in support of Bengali as one of the official languages of Pakistan. This article contains major and minor issues related to Pakistan Major Issues Corruption, unemployment, Populations, Transportation, Water issues, Political Failure, Judicial System, Mass Media, Economic issues, Target killing, Environmental Issues, Education, Power shortage, International interference, FATA reforms, Education system, Food Insecurity, Sanitation, corona problems Pakistan is adopting Urdu as its official language, but with many people not speaking it, the move is proving divisive, as the BBC's Ilyas Khan reports. Something is rotten at the heart of global capitalism’s working, a system that has worked for humanity’s progress over time. Earthquake of October 2005 and the terrorist attack on Army Public School, Peshawar on December 16, 2014, also united the people of Pakistan. 5–7 January. Derived from Persian, Arabic and a combination of local dialects, it is the language of the Subcontinent along with Hindi. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. The issue of language in Pakistan is not just related to linguistics. Unfortunately the menace of corruption, nepotism and bad governance tends to reflect the lack of ownership of the country as majority of the people, including those representing various state institutions are interested in protecting their personal, community, clan or group interests than the interests of the country as a whole. Log In. Language is the source of knowledge and communication. United States, which has numerous lingual and ethnic variations has to a large extent succeeded in creating American man and woman because of a policy pursued at the grassroots’ level in a democratic set-up particularly its uniform educational system. In this episode we are doing more than just similarities between two languages, we are also going to discuss a few other things we share in common. Ironically, feelings of Pakistani nation only surfaced at the time of an external threat or natural disaster. Two-nation theory was the essence of the creation of Pakistan as the founder of the country and his colleagues in the Muslim League realised that in an undivided India with a Hindu majority, the Muslim minority will not be able to live as equal citizens. Hina Ashraf, Translingual practices and monoglot policy aspirations: a case study of Pakistan’s plurilingual classrooms, Current Issues in Language Planning, 19, 1, (1), (2018). The Soviet Union under the communist ideology tried to form a Soviet man and woman keeping in mind diverse ethnic and lingual contradictions in that country. Page Transparency See More. The national heroes of the country are Mohammed Ali Jinnah, often referred to as the founder of the country. What are the six major positives with regards to Pakistan's economy? Despite the shared religion of its overwhelmingly Muslim population, Pakistan has been engaged in a precarious struggle to define a national identity and evolve a political system for its linguistically diverse population. So it makes things very complex. It has become increasingly difficult to eliminate corruption. Urdu is also the language used as education language in most of the provinces despite the existence of other minority languages, whose … English has been the main language of instruction at the elementary and secondary levels since colonial times. National University Of Modern Languages Islamabad Admissions in Jang newspaper of 10 November, 2020 and more Admissions ads of National University Of Modern Languages Islamabad Admissions 2020 published in Pakistan newspapers having a Admissions announcement in Jang epaper of 10 November, 2020 on Admissionads.pk Pakistan's president today issued a much-awaited new law requiring the establishment of special courts to speedily conclude trials of people charged with … KPK. Media/News Company. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. Once the threat is dealt with, the internal contradictions re-appear. It is not unusual to hear men use colorful language and swear words in humorous and casual conversations, especially when conversing in local dialects. An official language is one which is used for the operations of the government. Even after years of investments, reforms and promises, the education sector remains weak in Pakistan. I ndia’s diversity is well-known and celebrated, and in true Indian fashion, extends to the multitude of languages spoken in the country as well. For instance, in a TV channel interview, prominent nuclear scientist and the father of Pakistan’s atomic bomb Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan bluntly talked of the alleged prejudices he had faced. Why the challenge of national integration was not taken seriously by the leadership in the nascent state of Pakistan and how feelings of ethnic nationalism permeated particularly in the then East Pakistan? Economic development also remains uncertain because of Pakistan’s dependence on agricultural production and its reliance on foreign oil supplies. Those wielding power and other stakeholders in Pakistan who are living in their comfort zones, it is their responsibility to examine and analyse how in other countries having diverse cultures, languages and religions, the process of national integration was unleashed and reached to its logical conclusion. Pakistan was founded as an independent nation in 1947, following partition with India. The writer is Meritorious Professor of International Relations and former Dean Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Karachi. Many countries face the challenge of national integration but in some cases their leadership is able to integrate diverse people by ensuring social justice, tolerance, rule of law, good governance and democratic pluralism. Each country has its own national language.As we know that English is an international language but … Pakistan by mother language (1998) Linguistic Group. Essay on messiah. Similar is the case with the Sindhi language. National University Of Modern Languages Islamabad Admissions in Thenews newspaper of 10 November, 2020 and more Admissions ads of National University Of Modern Languages Islamabad Admissions 2020 published in Pakistan newspapers having a Admissions announcement in Thenews epaper of 10 November, 2020 on Admissionads.pk Two years later, on 21 February 1956, the National Assembly of Pakistan declared both Urdu and Bengali the official state languages of Pakistan. Urdu is the national language despite not being the mother tongue of any native group in the country. Cultural, lingual and religious variations exist in many countries of the world but it is the wise and prudent leadership which provides a sense of participation, opportunities for progress and development. There are various official languages in India at the state/territory level. It should be state’s responsibility to provide free, compulsory and quality education to all the citizens of Pakistan till high school regardless of their class, language, sect, religion and place of origin. The origin of Urdu goes back several centuries, and according to some historians, Urdu has evolved from an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the area around Delhi which absorbed words fro… The Lahore Resolution of March 23, 1940, had called for the establishment of Muslim states in the Muslim majority regions of northwest and northeast. CDC supports the Government of Pakistan’s (GoP) polio eradication efforts via an assignee to the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office who focuses on Pakistan. A national consensus on a democratic form of government is a must for Pakistan’s long-term stability, security and economic progress. Pakistan became a unique state with a geographical distance of more than 1,000 miles between its eastern and western wings with hostile India in the middle. In the absence of a uniform educational system, particularly in terms of curricula and mode of education, one cannot expect the youths of Pakistan, who are around 50 per cent of the population, to seek attachment with the land, values, culture, history and other characteristics of the country. Very conscious, sensitive and proud about their languages Jinnah said in reply. And culture history of this country case is the country of Muslim nation, then Arabic not. Language you state as our mother tongue is not our mother tongue language issue in Bengal... Between legislatures and the people in different provinces of it of Punjabi language started... Of India-Pakistan relations would be incomplete without considering the body language of Pakistan and implications. But only 10 % of the foremost problems in education system of Pakistan ethnic... Has five major indigenous languages given below the trends, issues and challenges in policy and Localization in Pakistan presented. 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